Imaging

Optical Microscopy (LOM), (SLOM)

Light microscopy is a fast and easy to use technique for imaging.
The stereo microscope is a good starting point for examinations as it gives a good overview of the specimen. The light microscope operates at higher magnification compared to the stereo microscope and are mostly used on polished specimens.

Typical applications:

  • Microstructures
  • Plating and coating thickness
  • Crack characteristics

Leica DRME Light Microscope and Olympus SZX16 Stereo Microscope.

Weld in copper
Crack in G-X75 CrNiSi 23-2-1

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful technique for imaging features down to the nanometer range.  SEM can provide topographical and compositional information and has a greater depth of field compared to conventional light microscopes.

Typical applications:

  • Imaging of small features
  • Spatial variations in chemical composition
  • Enables chemical analysis (EDX)
  • Fractography in conjuntion with failure investigations

Zeiss FEG Ultra 55 with SE, BSE, In-Lens SE and In-Lens BSE detectors.

Electron Diffraction (EBSD)

Electron back scatter diffraction is a SEM based technique that provide crystallographic information of the microstructure in crystalline materials. EBSD can give information about crystal orientation, phases, texture, internal stresses etc.

Typical applications:

  • Grain structure, size, orientation and distribution
  • Texture
  • Phase identification

Oxford Instruments HKL, NordlysF.

Cross Section through chrome plated grey iron
Intercrystalline fracture in 42CrMo4
EBSD-map of a connecting rod from a submarine diesel engine

3D Optical Profiler

Optical profilometry is a non-contact metrology technique for surface topography characterization. The technique provides 2D and 3D images of a surface as well as numerous surface texture parameters.

Typical measurements include:

  • Surface roughness
  • Step hight/depth
  • Dimensions
  • 3D imaging

Veeco Wyko NT9100 system and 4.1 Vision analysis software.

Wear on a needle, image taken in WYKO

LOM & SLOM

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SEM & EBSD

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3D Optical Profiler

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