Imaging

Digital Microscopy

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Light Microscopy

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Electron Microscopy

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3D Optical Profiler

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Digital Microscopy

Our new Olympus DSX 1000 Digital Microscope provides high quality 2D- and 3D-imaging up to 7000x magnification. The instrument serves as an excellent tool for documentation, analysis, and measurements during failure investigations as well as for regular quality controls.

The 3D-function provides a great depth of field which in many respects makes this instrument similar, but even better than a conventional light microscope. Hence, digital microscopy is widely used for microstructural studies and coating measurements as it provides high quality imaging down to the μm range. The 3D-function also provides excellent topographical information from which various surface and volumetric related parameters can be calculated.

Typical applications:

  • Detailed 2D- and 3D imaging from 20x-7000x magnification
  • Coating thickness measurements
  • Microstructure and grain size measurements
  • Determining surface parameters such as Sa, Ra, Sz.
  • Area fraction of i.e. pores and corrosion pits
Digital Microscopy, corrosion pit
3D image of corrosion pit
Digital microscopy, cutting tool failure
Cutting tool failure

Light Microscopy

Light microscopy, also known as light optical microscopy (LOM), is a fast and easy to use technique for imaging up to 1000x magnification. The technique is widely used for validation of various manufacturing processes such as welding, heat treatments, and cold working methods. Light microscopy is mostly used on polished and etched specimens to study the microstructure of metals.

Light microscopy plays an important role in failure investigations to ensure that the material meets the specified criteria. Materials characterisation using LOM is typically used for phase identification but may also be used to reveal possible material deviations such as undesired deformation, cracks, pores and/or slag inclusions.

Typical applications:

  • Microstructural studies and grain size measurements
  • Plating and coating thickness
  • Crack characteristics
  • Welding defects

Leica DRME Light Microscope

Light Microscopy
Microstructure of weld in copper
Light Microscopy
Microstructure of ductile iron showing graphite nodules sorrounded by ferrite in a pearlite matrix
Light Microscopy
Crack in G-X75 CrNiSi 23-2-1
Light Microscopy
Axial section of screw showing deep cracks on thread flanks

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful technique for imaging features down to the nanometer range. SEM can provide topographical and compositional information and has a greater depth of field compared to conventional light optical microscopes.

Typical applications:

  • Imaging of small features
  • Spatial variations in chemical composition
  • Enables chemical analysis (EDX)
  • Fractography, an important part in failure investigations

Zeiss FEG Ultra 55 with SE, BSE, In-Lens SE and In-Lens BSE detectors.

Electron Diffraction (EBSD)

Electron backscatter diffraction is a SEM based technique that provides crystallographic information of the microstructure in crystalline materials. EBSD can give information about crystal orientation, phases, texture, internal stresses, etc.

Typical applications:

  • Grain structure, size, orientation and distribution
  • Texture
  • Phase identification

Oxford Instruments HKL, NordlysF.

Electron Microscopy
Cross Section through chrome plated grey iron
Electron Microscopy
Intercrystalline fracture in 42CrMo4
Electron Microscopy
EBSD map showing the crystal orientation in a duplex steel

3D Optical Profiler

Optical profilometry is a non-contact metrology technique for surface topography characterization. The technique provides 2D and 3D images of a surface as well as numerous surface texture parameters such as Ra-, Sa- and Sz-values.

Typical measurements include:

  • Surface roughness
  • Step height/depth
  • Dimensions
  • 3D imaging

Veeco Wyko NT9100 system and 4.1 Vision analysis software.

Optical profilometry
3D image showing wear on a needle
Optical profilometry
Optical profilometry used to visualise a forced scratch test conducted on PVD coated TiN on high speed steel.(Load 100 N).
Optical profilometry

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