Imaging

Optical Microscopy (LOM), (SLOM)

Light microscopy is a fast and easy to use technique for imaging. The stereo microscope is a good starting point for examinations as it gives a good overview of the specimen. The light optical microscope operates at higher magnifications (25x-1000x) compared to the stereo microscope. Light optical microscopy are mostly used on polished and etched specimens. The technique is a good tool for validation of heat treatments including examination of the microstrucutre to ensure that desired phases are present in the material.

Typical applications:

  • Microstructures
  • Plating and coating thickness
  • Crack characteristics

Leica DRME Light Microscope and Olympus SZX16 Stereo Microscope.

Weld in copper
Microstructure of a ductile iron showing graphite nodules sorrounded by ferrite in a pearlite matrix
Crack in G-X75 CrNiSi 23-2-1
Axial section of screw showing deep cracks on thread flanks

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful technique for imaging features down to the nanometer range. SEM can provide topographical and compositional information and has a greater depth of field compared to conventional light optical microscopes.

Typical applications:

  • Imaging of small features
  • Spatial variations in chemical composition
  • Enables chemical analysis (EDX)
  • Fractography in conjuntion with failure investigations

Zeiss FEG Ultra 55 with SE, BSE, In-Lens SE and In-Lens BSE detectors.

Electron Diffraction (EBSD)

Electron back scatter diffraction is a SEM based technique that provides crystallographic information of the microstructure in crystalline materials. EBSD can give information about crystal orientation, phases, texture, internal stresses etc.

Typical applications:

  • Grain structure, size, orientation and distribution
  • Texture
  • Phase identification

Oxford Instruments HKL, NordlysF.

Cross Section through chrome plated grey iron
Intercrystalline fracture in 42CrMo4
EBSD map showing the crystal orientation in a duplex steel

3D Optical Profiler

Optical profilometry is a non-contact metrology technique for surface topography characterization. The technique provides 2D and 3D images of a surface as well as numerous surface texture parameters such as Ra-, Sa- and Sz-values.

Typical measurements include:

  • Surface roughness
  • Step height/depth
  • Dimensions
  • 3D imaging

Veeco Wyko NT9100 system and 4.1 Vision analysis software.

3D image showing wear on a needle
3D-image of a performed scratch test (PVD coated TiN on high speed steel. Load 100 N)

LOM & SLOM

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SEM & EBSD

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3D Optical Profiler

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